Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[1][2] It is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body and is essential to all cells and some 300 enzymes.[3] Magnesium ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia.[3]


  1. (2008). "Inorganic Chemistry": 305–306.
  2. Ash, Russell (2005). "The Top 10 of Everything 2006: The Ultimate Book of Lists".
  3. 3.0 3.1 Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium. Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health (11 February 2016). Retrieved on 13 October 2016.