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Indium Edit

Not to be confused with Iridium.

Indium,  49In
General properties
Name, symbol indium, In
Appearance silvery lustrous gray
Pronunciation /ˈɪndiəm/

in-dee-əm

Indium in the periodic table
Ga


In

Tl

cadmium ← indium → tin
Atomic number 49
Standard atomic weight (±) (Ar) 114.818(1)[1]
Element category post-transition metal
Group, block group 13, p-block
Period period 5
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1

per shell

2, 8, 18, 18, 3
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
Boiling point 2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.02 g/cm3
Triple point 429.7445 K, ​~1 kPa[2]
Heat of fusion 3.281 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J/(mol·K)
vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −5[3] ​(an amphotericoxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.78
Ionization energies 1st: 558.3 kJ/mol

2nd: 1820.7 kJ/mol
3rd: 2704 kJ/mol

Atomic radius empirical: 167 pm
Covalent radius 142±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 193 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure ​tetragonal
Speed of soundthin rod 1215 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 32.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 81.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 83.7 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[4]
Young's modulus 11 GPa
Mohs hardness 1.2
Brinell hardness 8.8–10.0 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7440-74-6
History
Discovery Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1863)
First isolation Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1867)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of indium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
113In 4.29% (SF) <24.281
115In 95.71% 4.41×1014 y β 0.495 115Sn
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
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 · references

Indium is a chemical element with symbol In

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