This analysis exploits volumetric means to determine the amount of substance, or concentrations of unknown solutions using standard solutions. This is normally done by measuring the amount of substance dissolved in a given solution tha reacted with a specified volume of the other.
The volume of solutions required to quantitatively react are noted and they are then converted to amount of substance present in each soution.This technique of reacting susbstances together in volumes is called titration.
It is the process used to find out the concentration of substances by consecutive addition of small aliquot of a standard solution to the specified volume of the unknown solution.The end of these reactions is determined by changes in colour of organic dyes (called indicators) which are added to the reaction mixture.The solutions involved in titrimetry are mostly colourless so colour changes of the indicator are used to signify the end of the reaction (end point).
Types of TitrationEdit
There are various types of titration that are performed.These includes Acid-base,redox,Iodimetric,precipitation and conductometric titrations.
The Acid-base titration involves simple titration,back titration and double indicator titrations.The redox titration also involves permanganate and Iodine titrations.
Basic Terms Associated with TitrationEdit
- Titrant: This is the standard solution whose concentration is accurately known and it is used to standardise others.It is mostly put in the burrete.
- Analyte: This is the with unknown concentration which is usually pippeted into the conical flask.
- End Point: This is the point in the course of titration where the indicator in the titration mixture changes colour to signify that the reaction has come to an end.
- Equivalent Point: this is the point in the course of titration where equivalent amount of the titration has completely reacted with equal amount of analyte.This point is normally indicated by the colour change of the Acid-base indicator.