• Granpa

    Pre-RNA world

    October 19, 2017 by Granpa

    A pre-RNA world Genetic_code with only a single (but reversible) nucleotide (or rather nucleobase) which also happens to be an amino acid!
    Specifically 3-Aminobenzoic_acid (image below is the Zwitterion form)
    In the zwitterion form the acid (COOH) has donated a proton to the base (NH2) are the most common and abundant of the known polyatomic molecules in the visible universe, and are considered a likely constituent of the primordial sea. PAHs , along with fullerenes (or "buckyballs"), have been recently detected in nebulae.
    PAHs are not normally very soluble in sea water, but when subject to ionizing radiation such as solar UV light, the outer hydrogen atoms…

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  • Granpa

    Chart below:

    Atomic Number
    Element symbol
    Atomic mass
    shellnumber|/Radius of ground shell}}
    Crystal lattice
    Atomic packing factor

    Vertical axis = n +
    Background color indicates how far the crystal structure is from close packed. In other words, how distorted the lattice is.
    Atomic radius is calculated from the Atomic volume.
    Atomic volume is calculated by dividing the Atomic mass by the Density and multiplying by the Atomic packing factor.

    (P-type) Semi-
    conductor Donor
    (N-type) Note that due to sp3 hybridization the 
    end wraps back around to the beginning ↘ 

    Strong magnetic field
    - - - -


    "normal" Zeeman effect → sp3 hybridization? →  
    - -

    - - ms
    Weak magnetic field
    -1 -2 -1 0 1 2
    1 0 mj
    m + ms = mj
      Note the one electron that
    switches from …

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